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Addressing Inequalities

Inequalities have increased in all regions of the world. There are yawning gaps between the privileged and the unprivileged. Particularly widespread is the phenomenon of economic inequality that varies across different countries. While income inequality has increased since the 1980s in almost all countries, the diversity of trends across countries highlights that income inequality dynamics are shaped by a variety of national, institutional, and political contexts (Alvaredo et al., 2018).

This paper focuses on five major forms of inequalities that manifest in the four countries of the Transforming Education for Sustainable Futures (TESF) Network: South Africa, Somalia/Somaliland, Rwanda, and India. After a brief introduction to UNESCO’s Dimensions of Inequality (2016) that this paper draws on, it continues with four country sections that explore educational inequality; economic and wealth inequality; gender inequality; social inequality; and epistemic injustice and the intersectionality between different forms of inequalities that raise critical environmental and social justice concerns. The paper explores the ways in which the nature and extent of these inequalities impact on possibilities for transformative change for sustainable futures. This paper sits alongside other TESF background and conceptual papers (see Tikly et al., 2020).

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